Designing maintainable calabash tests using Screen Objects


As an Automated Test Engineer one of the most frustrating occurrences is the vicious cycle of broken tests (due to changes in development), or flaky tests. A result of these failures is time spent refactoring or updating poorly written tests in order to get a green build. Nobody is perfect and I have been the culprit of such mistakes, therefore I am always seeking to learn and improve my tests, in return avoiding this. If you have made the same mistakes recently, then hopefully you may find this blog useful.

In my opinion, there is no better way to design maintainable automated tests than to adopt an object-oriented/Page-Object like approach. The obvious benefit is a robust and well maintainable test suite.


I have previously successfully built frameworks using Cheezy’s excellent page-object gem, which makes life very easy creating a POM using selenium-webdriver or water-webdriver. Then just over a year ago read an awesome article entitled “Roll your own page objects” by Alistair Scott, which got my head spinning with thoughts on how I could implement something similar using Calabash? Fortunately I managed to implement this on a project successfully, however it was quite painful, and as result I had to extend the cucumber/calabash module in each of my ‘screen’ (or page) classes.

After taking a break from Calabash whilst working on a web project, I have came back to using Calabash and discovered something very cool that has been implemented by Karl and Jonas at Calabash. They have built a base-class into Calabash that takes care of the plumbing needed when using a page-object model.

I loved what they had done and Karl’s cross platform examples, so I decided to expand on this, share some my thoughts and integrate some of my ideas into my own projects.

My examples are using the open-source wordpress app available for both iOS and Android.

Application Screen Objects

Given that we are working on a native application with screens instead of pages, I decided to describe my model as a screen object model (SOM). The aim of this model is simple:

  • Hold elements for each of these screens.
  • Easily describe elements on a screen.
  • Instantiate screens in a consistent and readable manner.
  • Hold methods that use the elements to perform user-actions.

The WordPress Screen model

screen model

Calabash Base

The Calabash base class is something you get for free with both variations of the Calabash gem (iOS and Android) and if you are to create a SOM (screen object model) it will take care of the plumbing required to use calabash with Screen Objects.

Base Class (iWordPress & DroidPress)

The iWordPress and DroidPress base screen classes are what everything else extends (iWordPress for iOS and DroidPress for Android). The respective classes contain the instantiation code common to all pages, and the class methods needed to define elements and methods.

For example:

class DroidPress < Calabash::ABase

def method_missing sym, *args, &block
  send sym, *args, &block

def self.element element_name
  define_method element_name.to_s

class << self
  alias :value    :element
  alias :action   :element
  alias :trait    :element
  alias :activity :element


The Screen class

The screen class is a representation of each of the screens of the WordPress App. The aim of these screens is to easily describe elements on that screen and any actions that are explicit to that screen. Much like the aim of the traditional Page Object Model, should there be a change to an element ID or class (etc) which will as a result break tests, then a developer or QA can go straight to that screen and make the fix in one place. As well as listing elements, these screens will hold any methods related to that screen.

For example:

class LoginScreen < DroidPress

trait(:trait)                { "* id:'#{username_field}'" }

element(:username_field)     { 'username' }
element(:password_field)     { 'password' }
element(:login_button)       { 'save' }

value(:not_logged_in?)       { element_exists("* id:'#{login_button}'") }

action(:touch_login_button)  { touch("* id:'#{login_button}'") }

def login_with(username, password)
  query("* id:'#{username_field}'", {:setText => username})
  query("* id:'#{password_field}'", {:setText => password})


Above we are defining element, trait, value, and action, as well as a common method related to the LoginScreen.
When defining the elements or values we are passing in a block in the form of the ID, or query parameter by referencing the element we defined in the base class. These elements execute blocks against self; therefore the class delegates missing methods to our driver (calabash) or the screen class. For example, we have created touch_login_button that follows the same format as above by specifying the method name, and passing in a block of code, this time calabash code for ‘touch’ as well as the previously defined login_button.

The WordPress App class

The WordPress App Class is something that I decided to use as a wrapper around our screen classes. The aim of this class is to only ever have to initialize one class, reducing the amount of step definition code.

For example:

class WordPressApp < DroidPress

def welcome_screen
  @welcome_screen ||= page(WelcomeScreen)

def login_screen
  @login_screen ||= page(LoginScreen)

def home_screen
  @home_screen ||= page(HomeScreen)


Above we define and initialize the screens of our app, as well as create an instance variable for the screen which will be accessed from step definitions. We are initializing the screen classes using a built in method from calabash e.g. page(WelcomeScreen). This is the equivalent and more readable way of initializing a class like

Accessing Screen classes from Cucumber Step Definitions

When writing Cucumber step definitions it is generally good practice to stick to writing them at a high level. By this I mean calling screen methods, values or actions instead of directly accessing elements themselves from step definitions. Another advantage of writing tests in this way is that the Features & step definitions can be used cross platform, i.e. use the same step definitions for both iOS and Android.

For example:

Given(/^the app is launched$/) do

  @screen = page(WordPressApp)


When(/^I login with (valid|invalid) credentials to Add blog$/) do |negate|


  @screen.login_screen.login_with(USERS[:valid][:email], USERS[:valid][:password]) if negate.eql? 'valid'
  @screen.login_screen.login_with(USERS[:invalid][:email], USERS[:invalid][:password]) if negate.eql? 'invalid'


Then /^I (should|should not) be logged in$/ do |negate|

  if negate.include? 'not'
    @screen.login_screen.should be_not_logged_in
    @screen.home_screen.should be_logged_in


Initializing the WordPress App class in this way will provide us with all of the screens, subsequent elements, actions and methods for each screen which will be accessed using the @screen instance variable.


A lot of the page-object plumbing is already done for you with calabash. What I have done is extended on this, defining screens, actions and methods related to screens in the same way Alistair Scott had done for his Watir-Webdriver examples.

If done correctly projects could benefit from a robust, maintainable, and easily readable automated test suite.

I hope you enjoyed reading. All of the above example code can be found here on GitHub.



  1. Thank you so much for this..
    I have 1 question..It would be great if you can help me with answer.
    I struggled a lot today to find how to highlight or flash an object on emulator from irb prompt . I got link at github .It says we ca do using flash(uiquery)

    but I am getting below error is it because we can NOT use flash () method with CALABASH-ANDROID. I need to use this method () only with CALABASH-iOS. Please help me ..
    irb(main):012:0> flash(“btnSignIn”)
    NoMethodError: undefined method `flash’ for main:Object
    from (irb):12
    from C:/Ruby193/bin/irb:12:in `’

    1. Hi,

      Thanks for your comments. Unfortunately I have never used flash querying with calabash-android or ios. What is it you need it for? Is it something you really need to implement, or even worth the effort?


      1. Sir…the idea is just to highlight objects to be double sure that this is the same image i am tapping.
        If you please go through github link that i have pasted says ios-ruby-api. So i am afraid that can we try this on android.
        Actually i tried on android emulator.but got above errror. Unfortunately my company does not have set up for iOS.
        So can you please confirm the same?
        I must appreciate you for your time investment on this sir….

    2. Ian…the idea is just to highlight objects to be double sure that this is the same image i am tapping.
      If you please go through github link that i have pasted says ios-ruby-api. So i am afraid that can we try this on android.
      Actually i tried on android emulator.but got above error. Unfortunately my company does not have set up for iOS.
      So can you please confirm the same?
      I must appreciate you for your time investment on this sir….

  2. Nice article, clear and useful. Thx for writing it.

    You’re defining elements just as Strings and then later include them in a query as id. I’m not sure how I feel about that. Wouldn’t it be better to define the element by it’s full query string?
    eg. element(:username_field) { “* id:’username'”}

    and then just use it as:
    query(username_field, {:setText => username})

  3. Hello there, great article! I just started with Ruby/Calabash and intend on implementing this model. I tried to follow the same pattern that you did above, however when I run my scripts I get the follow warning:

    “warning: tried to create Proc object without a block” – the test continues but it prints that error 6 times, so I feel as something isn’t set up correctly.

    Whenever I try to set @screen = page(‘MyScreen’) I get the following error:

    “uninitialized constant MyScreen”

    Any help would be great! Thanks,

      1. I got the app working but I still get the proc issues

        def self.element(element_name)
        define_method element_name.to_s

        It says its coming from that method.

      2. I got rid of the proc object error! Thank you!

        However, in my application whenever I use the :

        query(element, :setText => text) method my login does not work.

        However if I user keyboard_enter_text(text) and it actually types it out on the simulator keyboard, it works fine. Seems like the first way is just putting the text in but not registering. Any thoughts?

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